Unit 1: Introduction to Biology Intro. What are some organizational levels of biology from atom to biosphere? Nucleic acids are polymers (polynucleotides) that store, transmit and help express hereditary information. Nucleic acids are polymers (polynucleotides) that store, transmit and help express hereditary information. oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons. Where and when did each work? Disadvantages? It predicts the change of species over time. What don't they have in common? a measure of the osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. This AP Biology study guide for Unit 1 covers key topics with in-depth notes on Structure and Function of Biological Macromolecules ... 1.6 Nucleic Acids. Limitations are limited magnification power. Students cultivate their understanding of biology through inquiry-based investigations as they explore topics like evolution, energetics, information storage and transfer, and system interactions. High surface tension. The endomembrane system is composed of the different membranes that are suspended in the cytoplasm within a eukaryotic cell. Chloroplasts carry out photosynthesis, the mitochondria does cell respiration. Cell does not expel energy to diffuse a molecule through the membrane. Structural organelles? Fluid. 1-6 acid, 7 is neutral, 8-14 base. Click the link below to help us! What was its mechanism? H20 is a common and extremely useful solvency because it's polar. Light microscopes can magnify to 1,000x and can see the smallest bacteria, and separate objects by .2 micrometers. Molecules with the same molecular formula but different chemical structures. Compare mitochondria to chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells while mitochondria are found in animal cells. The mechanism is natural selection. A large molecule composed of many repeated subunits also called monomers. 3) Carbon (Ch. AP Bio Unit 6: Gene Expression and Regulation. Check out Readable to make your content and copy more engaging and support Cheatography! AP Biology is an introductory college-level biology course. How are large molecules transported? Oh no! 2) Water (Ch. Food? is the movement of all types of molecules across a cell membrane against its concentration gradient (from low to high concentration). Where are they found? Evolution. It looks like your browser needs an update. What geometric facts determine cell size? What is in the endomembrane system? What theory did Darwin and Wallace propose? 1) Chemistry (Ch. What does it do? What did it explain? Monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides. Increased CO2 correlates with increased temperatures which causes severe weather patterns, coastal flooding, inland drought, and the melting of polar ice. Your Download Will Begin Automatically in 5 Seconds.Close, Eukaryotic modifi­cations to primary transcript (pre mRNA), single gene may be able to synthesize more than one protein, inform­ation in RNA is passed to proteins, ~ cells have different shapes and proteins, ~ cells use the DNA in the nucleus differ­ently, ~ when a cell changes from one form to another, ~ cells become specia­lized in structure and function, ~ the expression of different genes by cells with the same genome, histones: proteins associated with DNA packing, barr bodies: one X chromosome condenses because of DNA methyl­ation, acetul groups are added to amino acids of histone proteins, DNA is used to give instru­ctions for the production of proteins in the process of protein synthesis, gene regulation determines which genes are turned on/off, proteins can increase or decrease transc­ription, ~ caused by just one nucleotide base pair substi­tution of a gene, ~~~ still codes, but not properly (sickle cell anemia), ~~~ a change in DNA but not a change in the amino acid sequence, ~ caused by insertions and deletions of base pairs, nucleo­tides can only be added to the 3' end of a nucleotide, enzymes mediate the process of DNA replic­ation, 1) helicase unwinds DNA at origin of replic­ation and creates replic­ation forks, 2) topois­omerase prevents overwi­nding and single­-strand binding proteins support the replic­ation bubble, 4) DNA polymerase III adds nucleo­tides in 5' to 3' direction on leading strand, 5) lagging strand grows in 3' to 5' direction away from the replic­ation fork by the addition of okazaki fragments, 6) DNA ligase seals together okazaki fragments (short segments of DNA that grow 5' to 3' that are added onto the lagging strand), 7) DNA polymerase replaces RNA primers with DNA, primary transcript modified before transl­ation, RNA primer allows DNA polymerase to add nucleo­tides at the 3' end, operon: way of regulating genes and is usually made up of a few genes that involve enzymes, RNA polyme­rase: builder enzyme, needed in order to start transc­rip­tion, needs a promoter to bind to DNA, operator: a part of the DNA where a repressor can bind, if repressor is bound to operator it blocks RNA polymerase which means mRNA can not be made so neither can proteins, lac operon: operator and promoter region of DNA and three genes that code for enzymes that help in breaking down lactose, ~ there is a gene that codes for the repressor production and this gene has its own promoter, ~ if lactose is not present, then the repressor binds to the operator and blocks RNA polymerase which means mRNA and proteins can not be produced, ~ if lactose is present, the lactose (sugar) binds to the repressor (repressor can not bind to operator) and RNA polymerase finds its promoter, binds, and transc­ribes to make mRNA from the genes on operon, the mRNA will be used to make enzymes to break down the lactose sugar, ~ evolved in bacteria to deal with absence of tryptophan, ~ tryptophan is on amino acid which moves proteins, ~ designed to make tryptophan if it is not present, ~ if bacteria does not have trypto­phan, there is a number of genes that are required to make it, ~ tryptophan fits inside the repressor and the repressor will change it's shape to fit in the receptor, ~ if a lot of tryptophan is present, then we do not want to make more so the repressor is going to set operator in "­off­", involves a change in the structure or number of chromo­somes, deletion: loss of all or part of a chromosome, duplic­ation: reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome, inversion: reverses the direction of parts of a chromosome, transl­oca­tion: part of one chromosome break off and attaches to another chromosome, when a cell changes from one type to another, all specia­lized cells come from stem cells (unspe­cia­lized), DNA contains genes and genes contain proteins that change the way cells look and act, every somatic cell in your body contain the same DNA, using genes -> expressing -> turned "­on", the specia­lized cells can not specialize again and can not go backwards to the stem cells, cells decide what they will be based on internal or external enviro­nmental cues, internal: transc­ription factors will activate certain genes and turn them on (factors are bunched up because of when the zygote will divide), external: (induc­tion) (like peer pressure) a group of cells can induce another group to differ­entiate by using signals (like diffusion, direct contace, gap junctions), goal: to change gene expression (turn on/off genes, Eukary­otic: replic­ation before mitosis or meiosis (inter­phase), ~ breaks the hydrogen bonds holding bases together, ~ replicates DNA molecules to build new strand of DNA, ~ makes the primer so that DNA polymerase can figure out where to go to start to work, starts at the origin (ident­ified by DNA sequence), ~ single stranded binding protein bind to DNA strands to prevent the strands from going back together, ~ topois­omerase keeps DNA from superc­oiling, 2) primase makes RNA primers on both strands, 3) DNA polymerase builds new strand in 5' to 3' direction, ~ this means it moves along old template strand in 3' to 5' direction, 4) ligase takes care of gaps between Okazaki fragments, at the end of replic­ation there is two identical DNA molecules, ~ semi-c­ons­erv­ative: each copy contain a new and original strand, ~ promoter sites: region of the DNA where the RNA polymerase binds, ~~ transc­ription factors: binding protein, ~~ links nucleo­tides in a 5' to 3' direction, 1) protects transcript from hydrolytic enzymes, 2) tags the end as "­leader segmen­t" for the ribosome, poly(A­)tail: 30 to 200 nucleo­tides added to end, ~ removal of introns (noncoding sequences) (inter­vening sequences), ~ pasting of exons (coded sequences) (exit the nucleus), small nuclear ribonu­cle­opr­oteins found in nucleus (snRNP; snurps): complexes of small RNA units and proteins found in nucleus, splice­osome: complex of snurps involved in the locating and cutting out of introns, ~ mRNA triplet that codes for an amino acid, ~ start to stop sequence of nitrogen bases, ribosomes begin transl­ating while mRNA is still transc­ribing, redund­ancy: more than one codon for an amino acid, ambiguity: codon do not code for more than one amino acid, early evolution since shared among living species, genes can be transf­erred within species and among others as well, DNA primase goes along the lagging strand and adds RNA primer, once you have primer, polymerase can add on DNA at 3' end (5' to 3'), DNA ligase puts all fragments together as one strand, Ch 6: The Cell; Ch 7: Membrane Structure & Function; Ch 11: Cell Communication; Ch 12: The Cell Cycle, Ch 3: Water; Ch 4: Carbon; Ch 5: Large Biomolecules; Ch 8: Metabolism, AP Bio Unit 2: Cell Structure and Function, Windows Terminal Cheat Sheet with all Key Bindings based on Windows Terminal docs. 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